Most Popular City Names - City Names, Origins & Meanings (States by the Numbers)
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Modern-day trick-or-treating also has elements akin to annual celebrations of Guy Fawkes Night also known as Bonfire Night.
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Some American colonists celebrated Guy Fawkes Day, and in the midth century, large numbers of new immigrants, especially those fleeing the Irish Potato Famine in the s, helped popularize Halloween. In the early 20th century, Irish and Scottish communities revived the Old World traditions of souling and guising in the United States.
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By the s, however, pranks had become the Halloween activity of choice for rowdy young people. The Great Depression exacerbated the problem, with Halloween mischief often devolving into vandalism, physical assaults and sporadic acts of violence. One theory suggests that excessive pranks on Halloween led to the widespread adoption of an organized, community-based trick-or-treating tradition in the s. This trend was abruptly curtailed, however, with the outbreak of World War II , when sugar rationing meant there were few treats to hand out.
At the height of the postwar baby boom , trick-or-treating reclaimed its place among other Halloween customs. No longer constrained by sugar rationing, candy companies capitalized on the lucrative ritual, launching national advertising campaigns specifically aimed at Halloween. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Twice a week we compile our most fascinating features and deliver them straight to you.
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This Day In History. Why do children dress in costume and knock on strangers' doors to ask for treats on Halloween? The practice can be traced to the ancient Celts, early Roman Catholics and 17th-century British politics. Halloween Halloween Around The World. Here we see clearly again that urbanization has largely been confined to the past years.
By , still over 90 percent of the global and country-level population lived in rural areas.
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Urbanization in the United States began to increase rapidly through the 19th century, reaching 40 percent by This rate of urbanization was, however, outpaced by Japan. Urban shares in Japan were low until the 20th century. This increased rapidly, reaching over half of the population by ; nearly 80 percent by , and surpassing the USA to over 90 percent today.
China and India had not dissimilar rates of urbanization until the late s. Over this year period its urban share more than doubled to 58 percent. In the sections above we looked at the long history of urbanization. The chart below zooms in on trends in urbanization over the past 50 years.
Using the timeline in the map below you can view how the share of the total population living in urban areas has changed since Here we see that across most countries, urban shares have been increasing. The rate of change, however, varied significantly.
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Higher-income countries, particularly across Europe, North America and Australasia already had large urban populations in the midth century. Most had more than half of their population living in urban areas, with some exceeding 80 percent. For countries with initally high urban shares, this rate of increase was relatively slow over the second half of the century. Urbanization across many low-to-middle income countries has increased rapidly over the last 50 years. Urban shares have more than doubled for many.
In Nepal and Mali, for example, the share of people living in urban areas more than quadrupled; in Nigeria and Kenya, they more than tripled. Today the majority of countries have more people living in urban areas than in rural. How many people in total live in urban and rural areas? The chart below shows the urban and rural population from onwards.
Here we see that in there were twice as many people in the world living in rural settings 2 billion versus urban 1 billion. Over the second half of the 20th century this gap closed, not as a result of absolute declines in rural population, but through rapid growth in urban areas. Since the crossing point in , urban population has continued to increase rapidly whilst rural population has grown only marginally.
The past 50 years in particular have seen a rapid increase in rates of urbanization across the world. Are these trends likely to continue? The UN World Urbanization Prospects provides estimates of urban shares across the world through to Across all countries urban shares are projected to increase in the coming decades, although at varied rates. In fact, by there are very few countries where rural shares are expected to be higher than urban. Why, when most countries are expected to be majority urban , does the global total just over two-thirds?
In the chart below we see estimates of urban and rural populations in absolute terms, projected through to As of we see that there is around 7. By , global population is projected to increase to around 9. Using our timeline map of urbanization you can explore how countries are expected to transition from predominantly rural to urban in the coming decades. Quality of living standards in urban centres is of course an important measure of wellbeing.
One metric of living standards is the share of the urban population living in slum households. A slum household is defined as a group of individuals living under the same roof lacking one or more of the following conditions: access to improved water, access to improved sanitation, sufficient living area, and durability of housing. The share of the urban population living in slums by country is shown in the chart below. This data is available from the year Here we see that in the latest data, most countries across Asia and Latin America had between 10 to 30 percent of urban populations living in slum households some slightly higher.
Slum households were most prevalent across Sub-Saharan Africa; most had more than half of urban populations living in slum households, and some such as Sudan, South Sudan, and Central African Republic had more than 90 percent.
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We see that over time, for most countries, the share of the urban population living in slums has been falling. From to , for example, the share of the urban population in slum households fell from:. How many people are living in urban slums? In the chart below we see the total number of people living in urban slum households, and the urban population not living in slums.
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Here we see that despite continued population growth and urbanization rates across most countries, the absolute number of people living in urban slum households has also been falling across many countries. A map of total number of people living in urban slum households by country is available to explore here. In the chart below we show the percentage of the total population which live in agglomerations greater than one million people i.
These figures are available in absolute terms the total number of people living in large urban settings , found here. Here we see large differences across the world. Smaller city-based nations such as Kuwait, UAE, Japan, Puerto Rico and Israel tend to have high rates of large urban agglomeration: more than half live in large cities.
Across much of the Americas, 40 to 50 percent live in large urban agglomerations. Most other countries across Europe, Asia and Africa lie somewhere in the range of 10 to 40 percent. We can also look at this centralisation effect through the share of the urban population which lives in the single largest city. This is shown in chart below. Overall, this share tends to be higher in countries across Africa and Latin America; a share of 30 to 50 percent is common. Rates across Europe, Asia and North America are highly variable, ranging from over 40 percent to less than 10 percent.
Many cities across the world have grown rapidly over the past 50 years in terms of total population.